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Table of Content

    2017, Volume 48 Issue 5
    06 October 2017
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    histology,embryology and developmental biology

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    Protective effects of NF-E2-related factor 2 on retinal cells and blood vessels in diabetic mice
    ZHANG Yan HE Mei-hua*
    2017, 48 (5):  497-503.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.001
    Abstract ( 136 )  

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) on the retinal cells and blood vessels in diabetic mice. Methods Sixty 8-week-old male Nrf2+/+ (wild type) and Nrf2-/- C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the model group and control group. The mice in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 45mg/kg) for 5 days, and those in the control group were injected with the same volume of citric acid buffer. Fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured every week in both groups after the initial injection. The retina was harvested at the tenth-week. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which was one of the downstream proteins activated by Nrf2 in the retina was detected by Western blotting. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the expression of RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS)and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), which specifically marks the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells (ACs), respectively. Acellular capillaries in the retina were observed by using periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin staining. Results At 1 week after STZ- injection, the fasting blood glucose of the model group including wild type and the Nrf2-/- mice were increased rapidly, accompanied by significantly decreased body weight. The blood glucose levels in the control group were not significantly increased, and the body weight showed a slow growth trend. At 10 weeks after STZ-injection, the number of RGCs and ACs Nrf2-/- in the retina of diabetic mice were significantly decreased (P<0.05). RGCs and ACs Nrf2-/-which were demonstrated by RBPMS and ChAT immunofluorescent staining, respectively. Periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin staining showed that the number of acellular capillaries were significantly increased in Nrf2-/- mouse retina after STZ injection. Western blotting showed HO-1 expression was increased in wild-type mice after STZ injection. Conclusion Nrf2 has a protective effect on diabetic retinal cells and blood vessels, which may be mediated through the induction of HO-1.

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    Hantavirus infection of astrocytes from cerebral cortex of newborn rats
    HE Shuai HE Yang YANG Shou-jing*
    2017, 48 (5):  504-510.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.002
    Abstract ( 74 )  

    Objective The primary focus of this research was to use astrocytes from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats less than 24 h infected with Hantaan 76-118 (HTNV) or Seoul virus (SEOV) strain L99 as an infection model in vitro to examine astrocyte susceptibility to hantavirus infection. Methods Astrocytes susceptibility to hantavirus infection was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting and genereverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of GFAP gene was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results HTNV or SEOV infection rapidly induced viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) expressions in astrocytes. GFAP and NP in infected astrocytes were co-localized. Upregulation of S segment RNA and GFAP gene was confirmed.
    Conclusion Our findings indicate that HTNV or SEOV availably infects and activates astrocytes, and GFAP may be actively involved in regulating structural and functional integrity of the BBB,viral NP synthesis and replication.

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    Reelin’s roles in the pathfinding of perforant fibers and commissural fibers in mice
    WANG Chen-yang WANG Qiang LI Rui-ping SUN Yi-zheng SHI Zhen-yu* DENG Jin-bo*
    2017, 48 (5):  511-519.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.003
    Abstract ( 63 )  

    Objective To understand Reelin’s roles in the pathfinding of perforant fibers and commissural fibers between wild-type (WT) and Reeler mice. Methods A total of 123 WT mice and Reeler mice from embryonic day 16 (E16) to postnatal day 7 (P7) were used for this study. The perforant fibers and commissural fibers were labeled with DiI and DiO tracing (anterograde and retrograde). Results 1. Perforant fibers were mainly projected from the neurons in the layers Ⅱ to Ⅳ of entorhinal cortex. They entered the stratum lacunosum-molecular layer in hippocampus proper as early as E16, while the perforant fibers reached the dentate gyrus (DG) at P1. The perforant fibers terminated in the outer two thirds of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus at P7. Compared with WT mice, the perforant fibers in Reeler mice developed retardantly and distributed in disorder. 2. Fornix commissural fibers rose from the pyramidal cells of the CA3, hilus neurons and the Ⅱ-Ⅳ layers neurons of the entorhinal cortex at E16. Compared with WT mice, Reeler mice almost had no significant difference in the development of fornix fiber. 3. Corpus callosum was mainly projected from the neurons of layersⅡ-Ⅳ of neocortex and corpus striatum, which started to project toward contralateral cortex at E18 and reached the contralateral striatum at P3. However, the corpus callosum fibers of Reeler mice entered to the contralateral neocortex later than in WT mice. Conclusion Reelin may serve as a guiding cue for the development of perforant pathway and commissural fibers. Without Reelin, the commissural and perforant pathways develop retardantly, and their original neurons in cortical plate are in disorder.

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    Tbr1 playing a key role in cell migration and neural differentiation during cortical development
    SUN Yi-zheng FAN Wen-juan* DENG Jin-bo*
    2017, 48 (5):  520-525.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.004
    Abstract ( 142 )  

    Objective To investigate the Tbr1’s role during the development of neocortex and hippocampus. Methods The brains of Kunming mice from embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) to postnatal day 14(P14) were used for immunofluorescent staining to visualize the expression of Tbr1 in neocortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Fifty-two mice (8-10 mice in each age group) were used for this study. Results 1. Tbr1’s expression was mainly located in cortical plate of neocortex and entorhinal cortex, especially in the cortical subplate or layer Ⅵ of cortices above; 2. In the dentate gyrus, Tbr1 positive cells were located in the granular layer, and were found innergranular layer after P7; 3. According to their location and histogenesis, the Tbr1 positive cells were the migrating and newborn neurons in the cortical plate. Conclusion Tbr1 plays a key role in cell migration and neural differentiation during cerebral development. As a marker of newborn neuron, Tbr1 is involved in the cortical lamination and affects the processes of cell migration and neural differentiation.

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    Therapeutic effect of astragalus polysaccharides on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats
    ZHU Shi-jie ZHANG Yan TANG Zhong-sheng FAN Rui-juan LU Ying LUO Ya-fei* YAN Jun-hao* LIU E
    2017, 48 (5):  526-531.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.005
    Abstract ( 57 )  

    Objective To investigate whether astragalus polysaccharide(APS) has a therapeutic effect on early brain injury induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Methods 120 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham) group, SAH model group (SAH+NS) and APS group (SAH+APS).After the establishment of the SAH model, each group was injected with the corresponding solution immediately. After 24hours, T2 weighted image (T2 weighted imaging, T2WI) was used to evaluate the brain injury;Nissl stainingmethod was applied to observe neuronal specific structure, morphological changes of austenite; Application of immunohistochemistry and Western blottingmethod to detect apoptosis cleaved Caspase-3 and the Bcl-2, Bax protein expression level.
    Results Histological staining and T2WI result showed that APS (40 mg /kg) could increase the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05), down-regulate the expression of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax (P<0.05) The result showed that APS (40 mg / kg) could decrease the degree of brain injury (P<0.05). Conclusion Astragalus polysaccharide can inhibit the apoptosis of neurons in hippocampus of SAH rats, and has therapeutic effect on early brain injury.

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    Ozone attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via suppression the expression of nuclear factor κB/inhibitor of  nuclear factor κBα/inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase β
    MA Xu-bao SHANGGUAN Jun-fa* SUN Jian-min
    2017, 48 (5):  532-537.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.006
    Abstract ( 67 )  

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effects of ozone treatment on expression of nuclear factor κB(NF-κB)/inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα(IκBα)/inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase β(IKKβ) in spinal cord tissue of rats with neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction of sciatic nerve injury (CCI). Methods The neuropathic pain rats’ model was established by chronic constriction of sciatic nerve injury. Using the Von Fery Filaments system and cold plate to test the effect of ozone on mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and cold withdrawal threshold (CWT), respectively; using the RT-PCT and Western blotting method to analysis the expressions of NF-κB, IκBα, IKKβ mRNA and protein in spinal cord tissue of CCI rats. Results Compared with the CCI model group rats, the ozone (0.8, 0.4 ml) could increase the CCI rats’ MWT, and decrease the CWT (P<0.05, P<0.01); the ozone (0.8, 0.4 ml) could down-regulate the CCI rats’ spinal cord tissue expression levels of NF-κB, IκBα and IKKβ mRNA and protein (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Ozone has analgesic effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulation of the NF-κB, IκBα and IKKβ.

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    Comparison of different effects between myocardial micro-environment and 5-azacytidine induced adipose mesenchymal stem cells into myocardial cells
    GUO Zhi-kun CHANG Dan-yang LIU Ling-ling Li Qiong*
    2017, 48 (5):  538-544.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.007
    Abstract ( 80 )  

    Objective To explore the different effects between myocardial micro-environmentin vivo and 5-azacytidine(5-aza) in vitroinduced adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) into myocardial cells. Methods The ADMSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the groin area of mice and cultured. Their surface makers and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability were identified. The third-generation ADMSCs were randomly divided into two groups: a 5-aza induced in vitrogroup (for 3 weeks), and a myocardial transplantation in vivo group (for 1 week). Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the expression of cardiac troponin T (cTnT). Results ADMSCs expressed cTnT in both groups. The expression rate in the 5-aza induced group after 3 weeks was (33.33 ± 3.79)%; the expression rate of the transplantation group after 1 week was (42.93 ± 4.04)%. Compared with the 5-aza induced group, the transplantation group had a higher efficiency of differentiation (P<0.05). Conclusion ADMSCs can differentiate into myocardial cells in both in vitro 5-aza induced group and in vivo myocardial transplantation induced group, but the differentiation efficiency is significantly higher by myocardial microenvironment in vivo than that chemically induced in vitro.

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    Expression of receptor for activated C kinase 1 in gastric cancer cells and its relationship with the proliferation of gastric cancer cells
    LIU Chao REN Li-li WANG Yi-zhao LIU Yi-meng XIAO Jian-ying*
    2017, 48 (5):  545-549.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.008
    Abstract ( 148 )  

    Objective To study the expression of the receptor for activated protein C kinase 1(RACK1, GNB2L1) in gastric cancer cells HGC27 and the effect of overexpressed RACK1 on the growth of HGC27 cells. Methods The gastric carcinoma cells HGC27 and normal gastric mucosa GES-1 cells were cultured in vitro and collected 48hours later. RNA and protein were extracted from the cells. The expression of RACK1 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HGC27 and GES-1 cells, respectively. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1A-flag-RACK1 was constructed using human embryo kidney cell HEK293 cDNA as template and transfected into HGC27 cells with Lipo2000, and the transfection efficiency was evaluated by Western blotting and the survival rate of HGC27 cells was detected by MTT method . Results The expressions of RACK1 mRNA and protein in HGC27 cells were lower than that in GES-1 cells (P<0.01). Double enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing analysis showed that the recombinant plasmid of pcDNA3.1A-flag-RACK1 was successfully constructed. There was no significant difference between untransfected group and pcDNA3.1 vector group(P>0.05), while the RACK1 protein expression was significantly increased compared with untransfected group and vector transfected group(P<0.01). The survival rate of cells transfected with pcDNA3.1A-flag-RACK1 at 72 hours and 96 hours was significantly less than that of cells with pcDNA3.1 transfection (P<0.01). Conclusion The expression level of mRNA and protein of scaffold protein RACK1 in HGC27 gastric carcinoma cells is downregulated. Overexpressed RACK1 can significantly inhibit the growth of HGC27 cells. This study provides a new theoretical and experimental basis for RACK1 as a new molecular marker and star molecule in signaling pathways.

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    Low microRNA-133a level in gastric juice forebodes unfavorable progression and prognosis of gastric cancer
    SHAO Juan KONG Gui-mei SHI Ming-yi BO Ping*
    2017, 48 (5):  550-555.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.009
    Abstract ( 168 )  

    Objective We previously reported that the microRNA-133a (MiR-133a) levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly down-regulated, the current research surveyed whether low MiR-133a levels in gastric juice are related to the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer. Methods The gastric juice and mucosa samples were collected from an independent set of 236 masked pattern: 34 from healthy donors and 202 from patients with gastric cancer. In addition, cell invasion and migration abilities were observed with Transwell invasion assay and wound healing migration assay.
    Results MiR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated, and associated with advanced tumor grade, T stage and presence of metastasis. MiR-133a significantly inhibited the invasion and migration abilities of gastric cancer cells. The low MiR-133a expression in gastric juice was taken as a poor prognostic marker of both overall and disease-free survival in patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion These findings justify that low MiR-133a expression in gastric juice strongly associates with advanced tumor progression and unfavorable clinical outcome of patients with gastric cancer, and might be used as a useful tool to estimating progression and prognosis of this disease.

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    Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 and fork box protein 3 gene protein and mRNA in children mediastinal neuroblastoma cell strains SK-N-SH and LAN-5 and their effects induced by cyclophosphamide
    XIE Yan-li WANG Tao*
    2017, 48 (5):  556-560.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.010
    Abstract ( 151 )  

    Objective To observe the effect of cyclophosphamide on the CXC chemokin receptor 4(CXCR4) and fork box protein 3(Foxp3) expression of mediastinal neuroblastoma cell strains LAN-5 and SK-N-SH. Methods The Real-time PCR method was used to detect the relative expression of CXCR4 and Foxp3 mRNA, cell proliferation was detected by MTT, CXCR4 and Foxp3 gene expressions were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results CXCR4 and Foxp3 were high expressed in LAN-5 and SK-N-SH cells; IC50 of cyclophosphamide on LAN-5 and SK-N-SH cells were 6.5μmol/L and 3.9μmol/L, respectively; Cyclophosphamide decreased CXCR4 protein expression significantly in LAN-5 cell (P<0.01), also decreased the CXCR4 mRNA expression significantly in SK-N-SH cell (P<0.05), and cyclophosphamide downregulated Foxp3 protein (P<0.05) and Foxp3 mRNA (P<0.01) expression significantly in LAN-5 cells. Conclusion CXCR4 and Foxp3 may be a potential target for neuroblastoma chemotherapy.

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    Anatomy of the plantar fascia
    CHEN Hua-you MA Ji-yuan PAN Li-ya TIAN Wen HONG Yang QIN Xiang-zheng*
    2017, 48 (5):  561-564.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.011
    Abstract ( 150 )  

    Objective To observe the plantar aponeurosis and to provide relevant anatomic data for clinical application. Methods Fifty formalin fixed feet were dissected and the superficial layer of the plantar fascia was observed. The thickness and length of the medial and lateral fibrous bundles at the middle part of the plantar aponeurosis that ends at the head of the metatarsal bones (plantar fascia) were measured. The thickness of the middle part of the plantar fascia was examined.
    Results The fibrous structure of the superficial layer of the plantar aponeurosis mainly participated in the formation of the anterolateral plantar fat pad, and formed a spiral fibrous-lamina structure similar to the plantar cleavage lines. The fibrous structure of the superficial layer of the plantar aponeurosis at the heel was relatively sparse. The thickness of the middle part was (2.168±0.1139) mm. The thickness of the fibre bundle of the plantar fascia at the medial and lateral side of the first toe bones was (1.33±0.08)mm, and (1.46±0.07)mm, which was significantly larger than that at the 2-5 toe, P<0.05. The thickness of the fibres at the medial and lateral side of the fifth toe bones was (0.29±0.02) mm, (0.37±0.04) mm, which was significantly smaller than that of the 1-4 toe,P<0.05.
    Conclusion The superficial layer of the plantar aponeurosis mainly participates in the formation of the anterolateral plantar fat pad; the deep layer of the plantar aponeurosis is crucial in maintaining the stability of the instep, which contributes to avoiding the compression of the common plantar digital nerves and the plantar vessels of toes when exerted with force.

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    Changes of the ultrastructures of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells and the content of nitric oxide in serum after acute pulmonary embolism in rabbits
    JIN Hui-yan LI Shu-qing* RUAN Li-bo
    2017, 48 (5):  565-570.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.012
    Abstract ( 73 )  

    [Objective To study the ultrastructures of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) and the content of nitric oxide (NO) in serum after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) in rabbits. Methods A total of 19 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: sham (n=3), 2 hours after APE (n=3), 4 hours after APE (n=3) and 8 hours of APE (n=10). The rabbit model of APE was established by injecting autologous blood clots. Pathological histology changes of the lung were observed under an optical microscope and the ultrastructural changes of PVECs were examined by transmission electron microscopy at the 2ed hour, the 4th hour and the 8th hour after APE. In addition, the content of NO in serum at pre-embolism, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after APE was determined by nitrate reductasemethod . Results In the embolism group, the HE staining showed that there were thrombi within the pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary congestion was found in pulmonary arteries and massive inflammatory cells were infiltrated into the arteries. The transmission electron microscope showed PVECs edema, rupture and mitochondrion swell and endoplasmic reticulum emptying. With the longer duration of embolism, PVECs necrosis and exfoliation were observed. The organelles were dissolved. Compared with the pre-embolization, the content of NO significantly decreased at 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after APE (P<0.05). Conclusion APE leads to the ultrastructural changes of PVECs and the content of NO in serum decrease in rabbits. The content of NO in serum is in relation to the ultrastructural changes of PVEC.

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    Structural and functional changes of pancreas in the aging mouse model
    XIAO Ming-he CHEN Lin-bo XIA Jie-yu CHEN Xiong-bin WANG Zi-ling XIONG Li-rong JIANG Rong WANG Lu WANG Ya-ping*
    2017, 48 (5):  571-575.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.013
    Abstract ( 93 )  

    Objective To investigate the structural and functional changes of pancreas in D-galactose(D-gal)-induced aging mice. Methods Two-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into aging and control groups, 10 mice per group. The aging group was injected D-gal [120 mg/(kg·d)] for 42 days by continuous subcutaneous injection. The control group was injected saline with the same dosage. On the 2nd day after the aging model was established, the level of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in peripheral blood were detected. The body weight(g) and wet pancreatic weight(mg) were weighted to measure pancreas organ index. Microscopic structures of the pancreatic tissue were observed after HE staining. Frozen sections of pancreas were prepared to detect the aging ofsenescence-related β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) positive pancreas cells. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its relative absorbance (RA) of pancreas tissue were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the pancreas tissue homogenate were assayed. Results Levels of FBG, pancreas wet weight and organ index in the aging group were significantly increased compared with the control group. The level of FINS was significantly decreased. Although the structural change of pancreas was not obvious, but the proportion of the area occupied by mononuclear cells in the pancreas islet was markedly increased. The contents of SOD and T-AOC were decreased and the level of MDA was increased in pancreatic tissue homogenate. Compared with the control group, the numbers of SA-β-Gal positive cells and the content of SOD and AGEs positive region were markedly increased in the aging group. Conclusion The structural and functional damages of pancreas exist in D-gal-induced aging mice. The mechanisms may be closely related to oxidative-stress damage.

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    Reproduction toxicity in male mice after nitrite exposure
    GAO Yan WANG Zhi-xin CHANG Cheng LIU Jun GAO Xiao-qun* DENG Jin-bo*
    2017, 48 (5):  576-584.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.014
    Abstract ( 145 )  

    Objective To investigate the reproduction toxicity and molecular mechanisms in male mice after nitrite exposure. Methods Thirty six healthy 2-month-old male mice were divided into control group, low-dose group (60 mg/kg) and high-dose group (120 mg/kg), 12 mice each group. Each mouse was treated with saline or different doses of nitrite by peros once per day for a total of 3 months, and the condition of the mice was monitored every week. The tissue of testis was harvested and the pathological changes of testis were analyzed by HE staining. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the proliferation and apoptosis of testicle cells, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. Results The body weight of the mice in nitrite treated group increased slowly compared with that in the control group. The coefficients of testicular significant decreased (P<0.01) and the morphology of testis also changed after nitrite exposure. In addition, the proliferation of testis cells was elevated dramatically while the apoptosis of testis cells reduced markedly compared with vehicle. The enzyme expressions of both DNA methylation and histone deacetylation were increased in a dose dependent manner after nitrite treatment (P<0.01).
    Conclusion Nitrite exposure can inhibit mouse growth and spermatogenic cell proliferation, and induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis, leading to reproductive toxicity in male. The increased DNA methylation and histone deacetylation level indicate that epigenetics may be involved in the process of male reproductive system damage and regulatory mechanism by nitrite exposure.

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    Effects of homocysteine on histone modification during oocyte development in mice
    LIANG Rong* CHEN Xi ZHANG Yu-jun SHI Cheng
    2017, 48 (5):  585-589.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.015
    Abstract ( 91 )  

    Objective To understand the effect of homocysteine(HCY)on histone modification during oocyte development. Methods In this paper the follicle culture system (10 female ICR mouse of 2 weeks) and method of oocyte maturated in vitro (10 female ICR mouse of 4weeks) were used. The processes of oocyte development and maturation were observed. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to show the influence of HCY on distribution of methylated histone H3K4, H3K9, and acetylated histone H3K9 during early stage of oocyte development. With the approach of Real-time PCR, the expression levels of two enzymes controlling histone acetylation, histone deacetylase(HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (GCN5), in oocyte maturated in vitro were compared between the groups of coculture with homocysteine and control. Results The process of oocyte maturation was significantly inhibited by homocysteine. The distribution patterns of methylated histone H3K4, H3K9 and acetylated histone H3K9 and the staining intensity were decreased by homocysteine. The chromatin appeared and slightly decondensated. The influernce of HCY on GCN5 expression was small, but the expression of HDAC in oocyte was significantly inhibited.
    Conclusion The effect of homocysteine on histone methylation and acetylation is present during oocyte development. This may be the good reason for the decline of nuclear chromosome stability caused by homocysteine.

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    histology,embryology and developmental biology
    Significance of CXCL10/ CXCR3 expression in the synovium of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis
    2017, 48 (5):  590-594. 
    Abstract ( 108 )  
    [Abstract] Objective To investigate the expression of chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 in the synovium of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to explore the role of CXCL10 and CXCR3 in the pathogenesis of JIA. Methods By immune-histochemical method, we detected CXCL10/ CXCR3 expression in the synovium of 8 cases of children with JIA and 2 cases of non JIA children. By semi quantitative RT-PCR, we also detected CXCR3 mRNA expression in children with JIA and control. Results There were significant differences in CXCL10/ CXCR3 expression between children with JIA and control group (P<0.05); CXCR3 mRNA expression in children with JIA (CXCR3:GAPDH 2.24±1.6) was significantly higher than that in the control group (0.65±0.5), and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion CXCL10 and CXCR3 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
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    Influence of vitamin D3 on embryo loss rate and peripheral immune cells in mouse model of spontaneous abortion
    XU Hui* WANG Yu-lan SONG Xiao-hui HUANG Juan
    2017, 48 (5):  595-599.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.017
    Abstract ( 173 )  

    Objective To explore the influence of vitamin D3 (VitD3) on embryo loss rate and peripheral immune cells in a mouse model of spontaneous abortion. Methods CBA/J×BALB/c was adopted to establish the mouse model of normal pregnancy, while CBA/J×DBA/2 was adopted to establish the mouse model of spontaneous abortion. There were totally 5 groups: normal group, spontaneous abortion group, VitD3 low dose group, middle dose group and high dose groups. The VitD3 groups were treated by VitD3 solution diluted in saline with intraperitoneal injection of 1μg, 4μg, 16μg, respectively, 15 cases per group. The embryo loss situation in each group was recorded and observed. The regulatory T cells (Treg) factor, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and helper T cells 17(Th17) cytokines, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), as well as the Treg and Th17 cell were detected. Results Compared with the normal group, a significant rise of embryo loss rate presented in spontaneous abortion group (χ2=16.045, P<0.05); Compared with spontaneous abortion group, the embryo loss rate in VitD3 low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group reduced significantly (χ2=5.881, 13.704, 15.663, P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the Treg, IL-10, Treg/Th17, IL-10/IL-17A in spontaneous abortion group reduced significantly; Th17 and IL-17A increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with spontaneous abortion group, the Treg, IL-10, Treg/Th17, IL-10/IL-17A in VitD3low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group increased significantly, while the Th17 and IL-17A decreased significantly, and they all had significantly difference based on statistical analysis (P<0.05).
    Conclusion VitD3 can reduce the embryo loss rate in the mouse model of spontaneous abortion, which may be related to adjusting the balance of Th17/Treg.

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    Analysis of Lanzhou citizens’ body composition in Gansu province
    HE Jin-quan HE Ye ZHANG Hong-dong WANG Yu-tang MA Bing BA Jing-ya FAN Jie HAI Xiang-jun*
    2017, 48 (5):  600-604.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.018
    Abstract ( 108 )  

    Objective To analyze the development and characteristics of citizens’ body composition and fat distribution along with the age growth in Lanzhou, in order to provide theoretical basis for the physical health. Methods The somatotype of 1357 adults was studied using the Japanese MC-180 type body composition analyzer(bioelectrical impedance method ). Results The body fat rate and waist-to-hip ratio(WHR)were increased with the age growth in 20-79 age group. The trend of total protein, quantity of muscle, presumption of bone mass, body moisture and body mass index(BMI)increased first before they were reduced. Between the male and the female, the change of visceral fat was same, but the subcutaneous fat was different after they were increased first. Conclusion The trend of abdominal obesity shows in 20-in male and 40- age in female. The quantitative value already beyond the scope of alert shows in 30- in males, 60- in females.

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    Somatotyping characteristics of Jino, Muya, Ersu, Bajia and Kongge in China
    WEI Yu ZHANG Xing-hua* YU Ke-li YAN Shi BAO Jin-ping JIA Ya-lan WANG Zi-shan ZHENG Lian-bin
    2017, 48 (5):  605-609.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.019
    Abstract ( 807 )  

    Objective To investigate the somatotyping characteristics of Jino, Muya, Ersu, Bajia and Kongge. Methods In accordance with the provisions of anthropology standards, the 12 anthropologic characteristics were investigated in Jino(n=600), Muya(n=157), Ersu(n=120), Bajia(n=158) and Kongge(n=71) living in Yunnan Province and Sichuan Province. Results The stature and weight of Muya and Ersu were higher than those of Bajia, Kongge and Jino. According to the means of BMI, both sexes of Bajia and Jino were overweight as well as Kongge were normal in males and females. Muya and Ersu were overweight in females but normal in males. Males in five populations and females of Kongge all belonged to Endomorphic Mesomorph. Females of Muya, Ersu and Jino were Endomorph-Mesomorph. Females of Bajia were Mesomorphic Endomorph. Conclusion The Ectomorphy values of five ethnic groups are small, and the body linearity is not high.

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    Current status of neurogenesis in neurotoxin-induced animal models for Parkinson’s disease
    XIE Ming-qi CHEN Zhi-chi WANG Tong-tong ZHOU Xiang HUANG Hou-ju QI Shuang-shuang LIAO Min SUN Chen-you*
    2017, 48 (5):  610-616.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.020
    Abstract ( 56 )  

    The animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) plays an important role in understanding its etiology, pathogenesis and detection of new treatment regimens. The discovery of endogenous neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain provides a new direction for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, based on cellular approaches. Although a lot of attention has been focused on neurotoxininduced endogenous neurogenesis in the brain of animal models for PD, it remains controversial whether neural stem cells migrate to the damaged brain region and promote the repopulation of reduced dopaminergic neurons in adult neurotoxic injured animals. In this paper, we review various literatures on neurogenesis in neurotoxininduced animal models for PD, aiming to deepen the understanding of the role of neurogenesis in neurotoxicity-induced animal models for PD.

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    Role of NF-E2-related factor 2 in retinal cell protection
    PANG Yi-lin ZHANG Wei-guang ZHANG Yan HE Mei-hua*
    2017, 48 (5):  617-621.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.021
    Abstract ( 54 )  

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox sensitive transcription factor mediating many protective genes. The Nrf2-regulated antioxidant pathway has been found to be adaptively activated to counteract increased oxidative stress. Pharmacological induction of Nrf2 pathway has been implicated as a new therapeutic strategy to relieve cell damage. This review summarized the main findings on the protective role of Nrf2 in retinal diseases.

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    Advances in the roles of microRNA-29 in renal fibrosis
    LIU Yi SUN Xue-jiao LI Cheng WANG Xi-ting LI Yu*
    2017, 48 (5):  622-627.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.022
    Abstract ( 69 )  

    One of the histopathological features of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is renal fibrosis which is accompanied by the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate most of important processes about renal physiological functions and homeostatsis. miR-29s are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis by regulating ECM production and deposition, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this review, we describe interactions of miR-29s with multiple pro-fibrotic and inflammatory pathways and miR-vs as a promising therapeutic reagent or target for the treatment of renal fibrosis. We also review the mechanism of microRNA-29s associated with renal fibrosis.

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    Structure, functions and relative diseases of synapse-associated protein 102
    SU Dong-ning CHANG Li-rong* WU Yan*
    2017, 48 (5):  628-632.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2017.05.023
    Abstract ( 157 )  

    Synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) is a significant scaffold protein in postsynaptic density (PSD) and belongs to membraneassociated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). It is highly expressed in both neonatal and mature neurons. SAP102 plays an important role in the trafficking of NMDA receptor clusters in the vesicles, anchoring certain receptors and channel proteins on the membrane and regulating development of the synapses in the cortex. Abnormal changes of SAP102 are related to many diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. Although it is crucial for both the normal biology functions of nervous system and the occurrence or development of certain diseases,the study of SAP102 is not enough. In this review, we focus on the structure, functions and relative diseases of SAP102.

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