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Neurobiology
Dihydromyricetin down-regulating the expression of nod-like receptor protein-3 in the brain tissue of ischemic stroke in rats
DING Hui-ru DENG Xin-wei LIU Huai-cun CHENG Quan-cheng FANG Xuan ZHANG Guo-liang CHEN Chun-hua ZHANG Wei-guang
2022, 53 (2):  137-143.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.001
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Objective To investigate the role of dihydromyricetin (DHM) in the treatment of ischemic stroke in rats, and to explore the effect of DHM on the expression of inflammasome.   Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was induced by endovascular suture method. The therapeutic effect and mechanism of DHM were investigated by Longa score, TTC staining, Nissl staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western bloting.   Results After DHM treatment, the motor capacity of MCAO rats was significantly improved, the infarct volume was significantly reduced, the brain structure and neuron morphology were improved, and the expressions of nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) decreased significantly.  Conclusion DHM can down-regulate the expression of NLRP3 and thus reduces the cerebral infarction volume and improves neurobehavioral performance in MCAO rats.
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Effect of recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin Kappa J region on the proliferation and differentiation of  CD133-positive ependymal cells
YE Xin BIAN Wei LI Meng-yi WU An-ting ZHANG Ting LI Jun-wei ZHOU Peng CUI Huai-rui SUN Chen-you
2022, 53 (2):  144-154.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.002
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Objective To explore the effect of recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin Kappa J region (RBP-Jκ) on the proliferation and differentiation of CD133-positive ependymal cells and its possible mechanism.   Methods RBP-Jκ in CD133-positive ependymal cells of lateral ventricle was interfered with siRNA in the fetuses of embryos which were isolated from 12-day pregnant Institute of Cancer Research(ICR) mouse (3 mice) and knocked out in CD133-CreERTM: :ROSA26-LacZ: :RBP-Jκflox/floxmouse(3 mice) treated with tamoxifen (TAM) intraperitoneally. The proliferation and differentiation of CD133-positive ependymal cells, as well as the related molecules in RBP-Jκ upstream or downstream were evaluated and measured by immunofluorescent staining, Real-time PCR and Western blotting.  ResultsBy interfering or knocking out RBP-Jκ, the number of CD133 or  β-galactosidase(β-GAL)/doublecortin(DCX) β-tubulin Ⅲ or CD133 β-GAL/microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) neuronal nuclear antigen(NeuN) or CD133 β-GAL/proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) double-positive cells were significantly increased in vitro or in vivo. Meanwhile, the result  from Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that RBP-Jκ and hairy and enhancer of split1(Hes1) mRNA and their protein expression levels decreased significantly, while Notch signaling pathway receptor 1(Notch1) mRNA and its protein expression levels increased significantly.   Conclusion The interference or knockout of RBP-Jκ will lead to upregulateing Notch1 and downregulate Hes1 expression levels, which eventually increase the proliferation and differentiation of CD133-positive ependymal cells.
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Effect of hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor precursor in mice cognitive dysfuction induced by social isolation
DENG Ying-cheng NIU lei XIAO Yu-hua XU Xuan SUN Qiu-ming WAN Wei
2022, 53 (2):  155-159.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.003
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Objective To investigate the effect of hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF) in cognitive dysfuction induced by social isolation.   Methods Thirty C57BL/6 J male mice (4-week old) were randomly divided into group house (GH,n=15) and socially isolated (SI,n=15) groups. The GH group (5 mice/cage) and SI group (1 mice/cage) were reared separately under the same conditions. The novel object recognition test and the novel place recognition test were used to evaluate the cognitive function. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus was detected by Real-time PCR. The expression of BDNF and proBDNF in hippocampus was detected by Western blotting. Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were extracellular enzymes that catalyzed the transformation of proBDNF into mature BDNF. Expression of MMP-9 and tPA mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by Real-time PCR.   Results Compared with the GH group, the SI group showed significantly reduced discrimination ratio in the novel object recognition test and novel place recognition test. The result  of Real-time PCR showed that there was no difference in the expression of BDNF mRNA between SI group and GH group. The result  of Western blotting showed that the expression level of proBDNF in the hippocampus of SI group increased significantly compared with the GH group (P<0.01),and no difference in BDNF expression was found between the two groups; Compared with the GH group, the BDNF/proBDNF ratio in the hippocampus of SI group decreased. In addition, the result  of Real-time PCR showed that the expression level of MMP-9 and tPA mRNA in the hippocampus of SI group decreased significantly compared with the GH group.   Conclusion The social isolation-induced cognitive dysfuction in mice may be related to the up-regulation of proBDNF in the hippocampus.
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Expression and significance of fork head box protein N2 and F2 in gliomas
ZHANG Jia LUO Xiao-xiao GUO Xin-ran WU Feng ZHENG Lan-rong
2022, 53 (2):  160-165.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.004
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Objective To observe the expression levels of fork head box protein N2 (FOXN2) and fork head box protein F2 (FOXF2) in normal brain tissue, low-grade glioma and high-grade glioma, and to explore the relationship between the two and the grade of glioma, and then deduce their roles in the occurrence and development of glioma, to look for possibilities target of drug therapy.   Methods From January 2016 to December 2020, 36 glioma specimens were collected from the Department of Pathology, Yijishan Hospital, Wannan Medical College. The expressions of FOXN2 and FOXF2 were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with the double-blind method , and analyzed by SPSS18.0 software, with a statistical significance of P<0.05. Then Western blotting and Real-time PCR experiments were carried out on fresh normal brain tissues, low-grade glioma tissues, high-grade glioma tissues during neurosurgery in Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College from January 2020 to January 2021 (normal brain tissues were all trauma patients).   Results The results  of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the higher grade of glioma, the lower expressions of FOXN2 and FOXF2 would be (P<0.05). Western blotting showed that the expressions of FOXN2 and FOXF2 in normal brain tissue and low-grade glioma were higher than those in high-grade glioma (P<0.05). The result  of Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of FOXN2 and FOXF2 in normal brain tissue were higher than those in high-grade glioma (P<0.01).   Conclusion FOXN2 and FOXF2 are expressed in normal brain tissues, and their expression is low in glioma in a grade-dependent manner, suggesting that FOXN2 and FOXF2 are related to the grade and poor prognosis of glioma. Enhancing the expression of FOXN2 and FOXF2 may provide a new idea for target therapy of glioma.
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Protective effect of rutin on myelin sheath injury in the sciatic nerve of rats induced by acrylamide
BAI Yanxian JIA Hui ZHANG Tong LUO Yu-you ZHANG Chun-mei LUO Li MA Yu-xin LIU Jing
2022, 53 (2):  166-172.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.005
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Objective To investigate the effect of rutin (Rut) on sciatic nerve myelin injury induced by acrylamide(ACR), and to observe the changes of myelin structure, myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in rats exposed to ACR.
Methods Thirty-six adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (ddH2O), 20 mg/kg ACR exposure group (ACR), 100 mg/kg Rut pre-protection ACR exposure group (R1+ACR), 200 mg/kg Rut pre-protection ACR exposure group (R2+ACR), 9 rats in each group, and were given gastric gavage for 21 days. HE staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of the sciatic nerve myelin sheath structure, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the changes in the expression of MBP and MAG in each group of rats.   Results Hind limb distance measurement showed that compared with the control group, the hind limb distance of rats in the ACR group increased with the prolonged exposure time (P<0.05). After pre-protection with Rut, the hind limb distance of the R1+ACR and R2+ACR groups was significantly lower than that in the ACR group. HE staining showed that after ACR was infected, nerve fibers were disordered and myelin swelling appeared, while in R2+ACR group, nerve fibers were orderly and myelin swelling was reduced. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the myelin in ACR group was swollen and loosened, vacuoles were found in the interlamellar area, and some axons had vacuolar degeneration. Compared with the ACR group, the laxity of myelin in the R2+ACR group was improved and vacuolar degeneration was not obvious, and only a few vacuoles were found in the myelin lamina and axons. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of MBP and MAG in the ACR group decreased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.01), compared with ACR group, the expression levels of MBP and MAG in R1+ACR group and R2+ACR group increased (P<0.05).   Conclusion Rut has a protective effect on myelin sheath in the sciatic nerve of rats induced by acrylamide, which may be related to the inhibition of Rut on the decreased expression of MBP and MAG in the sciatic nerve induced by ACR.
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Repair effect of wogonoside on rat spinal cord injury
WANG Xiao LIU Qing GU Cheng-xu LI Xi-kai ZHANG Lu-ping
2022, 53 (2):  173-182.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.006
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Objective To assess the effect of wogonoside on the inflammation after rat spinal cord injury.   Methods Rats (n=95) were subjected to dorsal spinal cord transection at T9-10 vertebra. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group (N), normal saline group (NS), low-dose wogonoside group (WG12.5), medium-dose wogonoside group (WG25) and high-dose wogonoside group (WG50). The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) were detected by ELISA. The levels of toe spreading (TS) and intermediate toe spreading (ITS) were evaluated with static footprint analysis. HE staining was performed to observe the histology of spinal cord injury rats. The number of neurons in rats with spinal cord injury was observed by Nissl staining, the morphology and regeneration of axons by transmission electron microscope, the demyelination by myelin sheath staining, and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nerve growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) by immunohistochemistry.   Results Compared with the N group, NS group showed higher expression of TNF-α and IL-1(P<0.01), higher levels of TS and ITS(P<0.01), abnormal morphology of spinal cord, severer loss of neurons, abnormal myelin sheath morphology, more serious decolorization of myelin sheath(P<0.01), significantly increased GFAP expression, slightly increased GAP43 expression. The WG group showed decreased expression of TNF-α and IL-1(P<0.01), lower levels of TS and ITS(P<0.01), restored morphology of spinal cord, inhibited neuron loss, restored myelin sheath morphology and new neural axis, reduced decolorization of myelin sheath(P<0.01), decreased expression of GFAP, and increased expression of GAP43. All these reversed results were dose-dependent.   Conclusion Wogonoside can improve the local microenvironment of spinal cord injury, reduce the formation of glial scar, promote axon regeneration, inhibit local neuron loss and cavity formation, all contributing to the repair of spinal cord injury.
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Cell and Molecules Biology
Mechanism of miR-381 on macrophage infiltration in polymyositis by targeting stromal cell derived actor-1
CHEN Zhao-ying HONG Wen-ke
2022, 53 (2):  183-189.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.007
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Objective To explore the mechanism of miR-381 on the infiltration of polymyositis (PM) macrophages by targeting stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1).   Methods PM model mouse was constructed by rabbit myosin (1.5 mg), mycobacterium tuberculosis (5 mg) and pertussis toxin (500 ng). The 30 PM model mice were divided into control group and PM+miR-381 group (n=15/group). During the same period, 15 healthy mice were used as a control group. Mice in the PM+miR-381 group were injected with miR-381 agomir (300 μg) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. Serum creatine kinase (s-CK), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in serum of each group of mice, and the pathological changes of muscle tissue were detected and compared. The macrophage marker protein F4/80 was detected by immunohistochemical staining to assess the infiltration of macrophages. The expression levels of miR-381 and SDF-1 mRNA and protein in muscle tissues of each group were detected. The target relationship between miR-381 and SDF-1 was verified by dual luciferase report. Mouse macrophages were divided into miR-381 NC group and miR-381 mimic group. The SDF-1 mRNA and protein levels in each group were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blotting. Transwell was used to detect the level of cell migration to evaluate the infiltration capacity.   Results The above indicators of the three groups were significantly different (P<0.05). The level of miR-381 in the muscle tissue of the PM group was significantly lower than that of the control group, s-CK, IL-1β, IL-6, histological score, macrophage infiltration, and SDF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The level of miR-381 in the muscle tissue of the PM+miR-381 group was significantly higher than that of the PM group, s-CK, IL-1β, IL-6, histological score, macrophage infiltration, and SDF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly lower than those in the PM group (P<0.05). The dual luciferase report result  indicated that miR-381 could target binding to SDF-1. The expression levels of SDF-1 mRNA and protein in macrophages in the miR-381 mimic group were significantly lower than those in the miR-381 NC group (P<0.05). The number of migrating cells in the miR-381 mimic group was significantly lower than that in the miR-381 NC group (P<0.05).   Conclusion Increasing the level of miR-381 can inhibit the inflammatory infiltration ability of macrophages by targeting the expression of SDF-1, thereby alleviating PM.
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Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on Rho/ROCK pathway in APP/ PS1 double transgenic mice
LIU Zhong-jin ZHANG Chun-mei ZHANG Yu-di YI Tong-hui LANG Wei-ya ZHANG Hai-yan
2022, 53 (2):  190-195.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.008
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Objective To study the effect of velvet antler polypeptides (VAP) on Rho/ROCK pathway in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. 
  Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into model group and velvet antler polypeptide group, 20 mice in each group, and control group consisting of 20 mice of the same litter and the same gender negative. The mice in VAP group were given velvet antler polypeptide 100 mg/kg by intragastric administration once a day for 28 days. After treatment, the water maze experiment was detected and recorded the escape latency and the number of crossing platforms of the mice; the ultrastructures of the synapse were observed by transmission electron microscopy; the expression of Rhs homolog gene family member A(RhoA) and Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase Ⅱ(ROCKⅡ) in the hippocampal CA1 area were observed by immunofluorescence. The expression levels of RhoA and ROCKⅡ protein in the hippocampus were detected by Western blotting. The contents of hippocampus amyloid β-protein(Aβ)1-42 were determined by ELISA.   Results Compared with the model group, the escape latency was shortened, and the numbers of crossing platforms was increased in control group and VAP group. Compared with the model group, the synapse count in the hippocampus was increased, the width of the synaptic gap was decreased, and the thickness of the post-synaptic compact was increased in the control group and VAP group, the difference had significant(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expression levels of RhoA and ROCKⅡ  in CA1 area reduced in control group and VAP group, and the expression levels of RhoA and ROCKⅡ protein in the hippocampus also reduced in control group and VAP group by Western blotting (P<0-05).Compared with the model group, the contents of hippocampal Aβ1-42 in the control group and VAP group decreased.   Conclusion Velvet antler polypeptide has a protective effect on nerve damage in Alzheimer’s disease model mice, and its mechanism may promote the changes of synaptic structure and reduction of Aβ1-42 content, reduce nerve damage and improve cognitive function by inhibiting the expression of RhoA and ROCKⅡ in Rho/ROCK pathway.
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Cancer Biology
MEX3A promotes proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
YAN Ting ZHAO Ji-kai WANG En-hua
2022, 53 (2):  196-202.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.009
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Objective To investigate the expression of MEX3A in colorectal cancer (CRC), and to explore the effect and mechanism of MEX3A on the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells.   Methods Totally 327 cases of data(41 normal tissues and 286 tumor tissues) were obtained from TCGA database, and 104 cases of clinical samples(77 cases tissues and 27 paracancerous tissues) were collected for immunohistochemistry, then analysed the differences in MEX3A expression between CRC tissues and normal tissues. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the differential expression of MEX3A in CRC cell lines.  CL187 cells were selected as the follow-up research vector. Small interfering RNA of MEX3A(siMEX3A) was transfected into CL187 cells to inhibit the expression of MEX3A. The proliferation and migration of CL187 cells were measured by MTT, colony formation assay and Transwell assay. The expression of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt and p-Akt were detected by Western blotting.   Results TCGA database, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis showed that MEX3A was highly expressed in colorectal cancer. The result  of immunofluorescence staining showed that MEX3A was concentrated in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In MTT, colony formation assay and Transwell assay, the proliferation and migration ability of CL187 cells in siMEX3A group decreased significantly than those in control group (P<0.05). Western blotting result  showed that the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt in siMEX3A group down-regulated significantly (P<0.05), and the inhibition of proliferation and migration ability of CL187 cells induced by siMEX3A group could be reversed by 740 Y-P via activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.   Conclusion MEX3A is highly expressed in colorectal cancer and promotes the proliferation and migration of CRC cells via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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Anatomy
Anatomical analysis of muscle spindles in tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscle of C57BL/6 mice
LIAN Wen-xi DUAN Hong-mei HAO Fei HAO Peng ZHAO Wen GAO Yu-dan YANG Zhao-yang LI Xiao-guang
2022, 53 (2):  203-209.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.010
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Objective To locate the distribution of muscle spindles in tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) and the anchoring mode of muscle spindles in skeletal muscles, and perform statistics analysis of their morphological character by anatomical parameters.   Methods Five adult wild type C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed, and TA and EDL were dissected and frozen with improved ultra-low temperature cryopreservation technology avoiding myofibers damaged by possible ice crystal. Continuous frozen transections were obtained and operated by HE staining, followed by microimaging to spot the muscle spindles location. Some parameters including regions length and cross section area (CSA) of muscle spindles were noticed for the discovery of some general characteristics of spindles by statistics.   Results For TA and EDL, the scattered characters of muscle spindles were distributed as follows: the spindles were located at the upper third of the mid-belly of both TA and EDL from caudal to rostral position, while near the enter point to muscle of the deep peroneal nerve in dorsal-ventral orientation. The peripheral of muscle spindles anchored to extrafusal fibers to hold in the muscle. And in term of length, region A, connected with sensory nerve ending, demonstrated a significant correlation with region B, which located at the poles of region A and twined by motor nerve ending (correlation index=0.75) when considering the muscle spindles with four intrafusal fibers only. And no correlation was discovered in any others pairwise parameters.    Conclusion The scattered diagram of muscle spindles in TA and EDL of C57BL/6 mice might provide anatomic basis for evaluation of lower limb motor function, especially for the spinal cord injury and recovery research. And the correlationship between the length of region A and B might improve exploring the variability of electrophysiological characters.
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Cone-beam CT analysis of occlusal planes between different vertical skeletal types of adult class Ⅱ malocclusions in Shandong province
ZHANG Tian-zhen ZHENG Xin-yu ZHANG Wei HE Zi-jing WANG Ling-zhi REN Da-peng YUAN Xiao
2022, 53 (2):  210-216.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.011
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Objective To investigate the cant of the occlusal planes in Chinese adult class Ⅱ malocclusions with hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent facial vertical patterns using cone-beam CT.   Methods The descriptive, cross-sectional study evaluated 123 cephalogram from CBCT(CCB) of patients in Department of Orthodontics, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. According to cephalometric analysis, 89 Chinese adult class Ⅱ patients were divided into three groups according to the angle between FH-MP and the angle between SN-MP. In comparison, 34 Class Ⅰ normodivergent malocclusions individuals were selected as the control group. Comparing the cephalometric result  between 4 groups.   Results As expected,the hyperdivergent group had steeper anterior occlusal planes(14.73±3.76) ° and posterior occlusal planes(21.42±5.77)°, there was a significant statistical difference between the hyperdivergent group and other 2 groups in class Ⅱ patients (P<0.05). The height of maxillary second molar increased from high angle group to low angle group (P<0.01).   Conclusion There are different characters of the occlusal planes in varied vertical facial pattern. The inclinations of anterior and posterior occlusal planes in Chinese class Ⅱ hyperdivergent group were steeper than other 3 groups. The difference of posterior occlusal plane inclination is mainly caused by the height of maxillary second molar.
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Clinical application of imaging anatomy of pulmonary vessels in segmental pulmonary resection
ZHANG Yin-ping WU Fei YU Hui TANG Yao ZHANG Hui CHEN Wei
2022, 53 (2):  217-224.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.012
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Objective To explore the effect of variation of the anatomical structure on the surgical method  of segmentectomy, after the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction of the pulmonary vessels,which provide the basis of imaging anatomy for clinical segmentectomy.   Methods A total of 100 adult lung samples with no obvious abnormalities in enhanced CT were randomly selected from Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from 2019 to 2020, respectively, and three-dimensional reconstruction was performed for all-round observation of the main and branch routes of pulmonary vessels. Results The variation rate of left main pulmonary artery was 1%, the variation rate of posterior apex and anterior segment artery was 18%, the variation rate of lingual segment artery was 10%, the variation rate of dorsal segment artery was no variation, and the variation rate of basilar segment artery was 1%. The variation rate of right main pulmonary artery was 1%, the variation rate of posterior apex and anterior segment artery was 17%, the variation rate of lingual segment artery was 22%, the variation rate of dorsal segment artery was no variation, and the variation rate of basilar segment artery was 13%. The variation rate of main left pulmonary vein was 3%,the variation rate of the posterior apical and anterior segment vein was 20%, the variation rate of the lingual segment vein was 16%,the variation rate of the dorsal segment vein was 1%, and the variation rate of the basal segment vein was 19%. There was not variation in the main vein of the right lung, and the variation rate of posterior apical and anterior segments vein was 25%, the variation rate of medial and lateral segments vein was 16%, the variation rate of dorsal segment vein was 1%, and the variation rate of basal segment vein was 28%.  Conclusion The anatomical structure of the pulmonary system is complex and diverse, especially the combination of the apical-posterior segment, the anterior segment and the basal segment, the posterior segment has commonly a fixed anatomical course,the medial segment and the lateral segment are different with traditional anatomical position relation. The 3D reconstruction technique can accurately and clearly reflect the course of pulmonary vessels and summarize their variation types, providing imaging data for clinical imaging location diagnosis and evaluation of vascular anatomy before pulmonary segmentectomy.
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Morphological analysis of thoracic pedicle of 12-15-year-old idiopathic scoliosis and normal spine in northern Shaanxi province
RUAN Cai-lian GUO Hong-tao HUI Xue-feng WANG Lu ZHU Hui ZHAO Lin LIU Bo-feng LI Xiao-ji
2022, 53 (2):  225-237.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.013
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Objective To study the anatomical structure of normal and scoliotic thoracic vertebrae in adolescents aged 12-15 years in Northern Shanxi Province, to provide detailed information for pedicle screw placement, and to provide data references for screw size design.   Methods Totally 120 cases of normal thoracolumbar CT of 120 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years and 30 cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were collected in Northern Shaanxi Province. The raw data of thoracolumbar tomographic images scanned continuously were imported into Mimics16.0 software for analysis and measurement in DICOM format. Measurement indicators: pedicle width, pedicle height, pedicle length, transverse diameter of spinal canal, longitudinal diameter of spinal canal, transverse pedicle angle,maximum transverse pedicle angle, sagittal pedicle angle and pedicle area.  Results Pedicle width:12-13 years old, T4-T9 were relatively narrow, T5,T6 were the smallest[male (3.71 ±0.72) mm, female (3.53 ±0.60) mm];14-15 years old, T4-T6 were relatively narrow, T4,T5 were the smallest [male(4.29 ±0.93) mm, female (4.27 ±1.20) mm];Pedicle height:12-13 years old, T1-T12 gradually increased, T1 was the smallest [male (6.19±1.06) mm, female(7.21±2.76)mm], 14-15 years old, T1-T11 gradually increased, T11-T12 decreased, T1 was the smallest [male (7.51±1.55) mm, female (7.48 ±2.09) mm];Virtual spike length:12-13 years old, T1 was the smallest [male (29.56 ±3.24) mm, female 28.25 ±2.12) mm];14-15 years old, T1 was the smallest [male (31.81 ±3.43) mm, female 29.60 ±4.78)mm]; Transverse diameter and longitudinal diameter:the two groups were similar in law, T1-T3 TD was larger than LD, T4-T7 TD was similar to LD, T7-T12 TD was smaller than LD;The transverse pedicle angle:The law of the two groups was similar, decreasing at first and then increasing, and the T5-T12 angle was less than 5°, almost parallel to the sagittal axis. Maximum transverse pedicle angle: the rules of the two groups were similar, T1-T3 decreased rapidly, T4-T7 decreased slowly, T7-T12 increased slowly. The sagittal pedicle angle:The two groups had similar laws, first increasing and then decreasing, and T5-T8 were the largest; Pedicle area:the two groups had similarities in law, first decreasing and then increasing, and T4-T8 were relatively narrow. Compared with the normal spine, compared with the convex side, the concave side pedicle width was narrower, the virtual nail tract length was longer, and the pedicle external deflection angle was greater.   Conclusion The analysis of the pedicle parameters of the thoracic spine shows that the appropriate size of the screws for each thoracic spine and the characteristics of the parameters of the scoliotic pedicles can help clinicians master the anatomical structure of the thoracic spine and improve the accuracy of clinical surgery.
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Anatomical continuity between the iliotibial tract and the fibular myofascial fascia
ZHANG Zhen-hua PENG Shi-qin XIA Dan-hao WANG Yong-kui CAI Xing-chen XU Gao-lei
2022, 53 (2):  238-241.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.014
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Objective To provide evidence for the presence of the lower body fascia chain.   Methods Totally 20 cases of Chinese adult femur were selected, and the anatomy was performed to observe the continuity on fascia between periosteal fascia and iliotibial tract (ITT). Judging the generic character and the degree of continuity of them. If there was a significant anatomical continuity between them, the tensile strength of the structure is tested by applying a certain tension to both.   Results First, an indirect link between the iliotibial tract and the fibular myofascial fascia was found: in all anatomical lower extremity specimens, the iliotibial bundle (ITT) was structurally connected to the fascial fascia, which was almost inseparable from the fibular fascia. Second, the application of tension to the iliotibial tract (ITT) could cause local movement between the fascia of the calf and the periosteal fascia.  Conclusion Iliotibial tract and fibular long muscle fascia are connected firmly. The stability of the connection suggests that it may play a role in the conduction of a certain tension.
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Measuremen of knee anterior lateral ligament and its clinical significance
ZHANG Zhen-hua PENG Shi-qin XIA Dan-hao WANG Yong-kui XU Gao-lei TANG Li-ming
2022, 53 (2):  242-245.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.015
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Objective To obtain the anatomy parameters of the anterior lateral ligament (ALL) of the knee, such as the appearance rate, morphology and anatomic relationship with adjacent structures.   Methods Totally 40 cases of Chinese adult cadaveric lower limb specimens were studied. The anterolateral section of the knee was dissected and ALL was exposured. The anatomic relationship between ALL and neighboring structures was observed and the length, thickness and width were measured when the knee joints were flexed to 90°.   Results The average length of the ALL was (38.04 ± 6.14) mm, the width was (5.39 ± 2.80) mm and the thickness was (0.93 ± 0.52) mm when the knee flexion angle was 90°.   Conclusion The anterior lateral ligament (ALL) is a unique and definite ligament of the knee joint, which has great significance for the stability of the knee joint.
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Histology,Embryology and Developmental Biology
Protective effect of miR-9-5p regulating transient receptor potential melastatin 7 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats
LIU Xiang-qian ZHOU Yi-meng XIE Xiang-rong NI Jin-zhong YANG Hao
2022, 53 (2):  246-253.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.016
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF  
Objective To investigate the effect of microRNA-9-5p (miR-9-5p) regulating transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion(MIR) in rats.   Methods Thirty-two SD rats were divided into sham operation group, model group, miR-9-5p overexpression group and empty vector control group. The MIR model was established by ligation of left coronary artery. The sham operation group was not ligated. miR-9-5p agomir and agomir NC were injected into tail vein 24 hours before model establishment in miR-9-5p overexpression group and empty vector control group. The myocardial injury was observed by HE staining. The expression of miR-9-5p was detected by Real-time PCR. The serum levels of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α), IL-1β, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in myocardium were measured were measured by ELISA. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. Double luciferase assay verified the relationship between miR-9-5p and TRPM7. The protein expressions of TRPM7, Bcl-2, Bcl-2 associated X (Bax), phosphoryl  ated nuclear factor kappa-B 65 (p-NF-κB p65) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were detected by Western blotting.   Results The expression of miR-9-5p was low in myocardial tissue of rats (P<0.05). Overexpression of miR-9-5p could reduce the expression levels of CK-MB, cTnI and LDH, and improve the degree of myocardial injury. Compared with the model group, the apoptosis rate, Bax protein expression, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β contents in myocardial cells of miR-9-5p overexpression group decreased, while Bcl-2 protein expression and SOD content increased (P<0.05). The result  of dual luciferase assay showed that TRPM7 was the target gene of miR-9-5p, and the protein expressions of TRPM7, p-NF-κB p65 and TLR4 in miR-9-5p overexpression group were lower than those in model group (P<0.05).   Conclusion MiR-9-5p can inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, and inhibit TLR4/NF-κB pathway by regulating TRPM7.
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Anthropology
Somatotype characteristics of Zhuang-Dong ethnic group by Heath-Carter method in China
YI Can LI Yong-lan YU Hui-xin
2022, 53 (2):  254-260.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.017
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Objective To explore the somatotype characteristics of Zhuang-Dong ethnic groups in China.   Methods The Heath-Carter somatotyping method  was used to study the somatotypes of 9965 (male 4312, female 5653) cases from 15 Zhuang-Dong language groups.   Results The average somatotype of males in the Zhuang-Dong ethnic group were 4.1-5.2-1.9, which belonged to the mesodermal somatotype of partial endoderm, and the mean somatotype of women were 5.5-4.9-1.3, which belongs to the endoderm somatotype of partial mesoderm. Except for endomorphy factor and SAM, height, weight, mesomorphy, ectomorphy and HWR of all age groups of males were greater than those of females. There were statistically significant differences in somatotype among the three age groups among the sexes of the Zhuang-Dong language group. The weight, height, and ectomorphy of men and women were negatively correlated with age, and endomorphy were positively correlated with age. Among them, the male mesomorphy was not correlated with age, and the female mesomorphy was positively correlated with age. The differences between male and female three-factor value age groups were statistically significant.   Conclusion The somatotype of male and female of Zhuang-Dong ethnic group has obvious changes with the increasing of age, and the southern ethnic group has the characteristics of low linearity, well-developed bones and muscles, and plump body fat.
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Technology and Methodology
Establishment of in vivo mice inverted two-photon laser scanning microscope microvascular blood flow imaging
LIU Jiao CONG Xin HE Qi-hua
2022, 53 (2):  261-265.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.018
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Objective To establish a method  of in vivo microvascular imaging and blood flow calculation with better continuous imaging quality.   Methods Anesthetized mice with dye injection through tail vein were placed in the center of a 37 ℃ hot plate holder. The stripped tissues were placed in a self-made low edge confocal dish and immersed in normal saline. The exposed tissues were pressed with self-made circular metal pads of different weights and sizes. The microvascular blood flow in the liver and hind limb of pregnant mice (n=3) and normal female mice (n=3) were measured by the improved device.   Results This method  can accomplish stable and continuous imaging. The blood flow velocity of liver and hind limb of pregnant mice were faster than that of normal female mice.  Conclusion This method  can be used for three-dimensional imaging of microvessels and detection of blood flow velocity in organs.
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Review
Advances in biological functions of miR-429
GUO Jian-lin WANG Xue-qing XU Cun-shuan
2022, 53 (2):  266-272.  doi: 10.16098/j.issn.0529-1356.2022.02.019
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) are endogenous non-coding single-stranded RNAs with a length of about 22 nucleotides. These RNAs play an important biological function within cells, among which, miR-429 has been proved to play an important role in inhibiting tumor development and tumor progression as well as in cell differentiation and neurological diseases by regulating the expression of different target genes. In this paper, the role of miR-429 and its downstream targeted genes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion is summarized.
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